Cache service#

The Starburst Enterprise platform (SEP) cache service provides the ability to configure and automate the management of table scan redirections and materialized views in supported connectors.

The service connects to an existing SEP installation to run queries for copying data from the source catalog to the target catalog. The target catalog is regularly synchronized with the source and used as a cache.

The cache service can be run as a standalone service or within the coordinator process. You can interact with it using its REST API, or the cache service CLI.


Table scan redirection and the cache service requires a valid Starburst Enterprise license.


The cache service has similar requirements to SEP, which are described on the Deploying page.

Linux Operating System#

  • 64-bit required

  • Newer release preferred, especially when running on containers

Java Runtime Environment#

The cache service requires a 64-bit version of Java 11. Newer major versions such as Java 12 or 13 are not supported – they may work, but are not tested.


  • version 2.6.x, 2.7.x, or 3.x

  • required by the bin/launcher script only

Relational database#

The cache service requires an externally managed database for storing table scan redirections data and materialized view definitions. The following RDBMS are supported:

  • MySQL 8.0.12 or higher

  • PostgreSQL 9.6 or higher

  • OracleDB or higher

Table scan redirection#

The cache service requires configured table scan redirection for each source catalog where table scans are desired.

Materialized views#

The cache service handles materialized view refreshes. To support this, each supported catalog where storage tables reside must be configured to allow the creation of these tables.


The cache service can be deployed either as a standalone application separate from your SEP cluster or within the existing coordinator process.

Standalone deployment#

A standalone deployment ensures that the service is not affected by coordinator performance, or the deployment of a new release on the SEP cluster.

Deployment of the cache service in Kubernetes can be managed with the available Helm chart .

Manual deployment relies on using a tarball:

  • To download the cache service binary file, contact Starburst Support

  • Starburst Support provides access to a file named much like starburst-cache-service-*.tar.gz

  • Extract it, for example with tar xfvz starburst-cache-service-*.tar.gz

The resulting directory starburst-cache-service-nnn, with nnn replaced by the release number, is called the installation directory. It contains all necessary resources.

Move the extracted directory into the desired location, such as /opt/, and you are ready to proceed with configuring the service.

Embedded mode#

The cache service can be setup to run within the coordinator process by providing configuration for the cache service on the coordinator in etc/ This mode of deployment does not require installation of any additional packages or running a separate service.

Keep in mind that the coordinator JVM is used, and its JVM and logging configuration is also used for the cache service.


Create an etc directory inside the installation directory to hold the following configuration files:

JVM configuration#

The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) config file, etc/jvm.config, contains a list of command line options used for launching the JVM running the cache service. The format of the file is a list of options, one per line. These options are not interpreted by the shell, so options containing spaces, or other special characters, should not be quoted.

The following provides a good starting point for creating etc/jvm.config:


An OutOfMemoryError typically leaves the JVM in an inconsistent state. The above configuration causes the JVM to write a heap dump file for debugging, and forcibly terminate the process when this occurs.

Configuration properties#

The configuration properties file, etc/, contains the configuration for the cache service, when deployed as a standalone system. Users of the embedded mode use a etc/ file on the coordinator with the same properties.

The following is a minimal configuration for the service:


The properties to configure the cache service are explained in detail in the following sections.

General cache service configuration properties#

Property name




Username to connect to the SEP cluster for executing queries to refresh the cached tables. This user must also be able to read the source tables for any materialized views it refreshes.


Password to connect to the SEP cluster when password based authentication is enabled on the SEP cluster.


JDBC URL of the SEP cluster used for executing queries to refresh the cached tables. You can use JDBC driver parameters in the connection string to configure details of the connection. For example, use jdbc:trino://coordinator?SSL=true for a cluster secured with TLS.


URI of the cache service, including the hostname and port number.


Path to the JSON file containing rules for identifying source tables and target connector for caching. It also specifies a schedule for refreshing cached tables.


Frequency at which cache rules are refreshed from the rules.file.



Maximum number of table import jobs that can be run in parallel.



Frequency at which the cache service triggers refresh of cached tables.



Initial delay for startup of the refresh.



Frequency at which cache service triggers cleanup of expired tables in the cache.



Initial delay for startup of the cleanup.


The following required properties allow you to configure the connectivity to the service database used for storing redirections.

Cache service database related configuration properties#

Property name




Username used to connect to the database storing table redirections


Password used to connect to the database storing table redirections


JDBC URL of the database storing table redirections, only MySQL, PostgreSQL and Oracle URLs are supported


Enables pooling for connections to the service database



Maximum number of connections in the pool



Maximum time an idle connection is kept in the pool


The following optional properties allow you to configure the table import configuration used when running queries on SEP to populate the cached table projection.

Cache service cached table projection import properties#

Property name




Number of writers per task when writing unpartitioned table



Scale writers when writing unpartitioned table



Target minimum size of writer output when writing unpartitioned table with writers scaling



Use table partitioning to parallelize writes between worker nodes when writing to a partitioned table. This reduces import memory usage and improves cached table file sizes.



The minimum number of written partitions that is required to use connector preferred write partitioning



Number of writers per task when writing partitioned table



Scale writers when writing partitioned table



Target minimum size of writer output when writing partitioned table with writers scaling


The following optional properties allow configuring type mapping rules:

Cache service type mapping configuration#

Property name




Set the kind of type mapping to apply:

  • NONE




  • FILE



Path to the JSON file


Frequency to use to refresh the type mapping rules from the type-mapping.file file


TLS and authentication#

File based password authentication can be configured for the cache service by adding the following properties:

HTTP and authentication properties#

Property name




HTTP port for the cache service



HTTPS port of the cache service



Flag to activate HTTPS/TLS



Authentication type used for the cache service, use password for password file based authentication



Path to the JKS keystore file used for TLS


Name of the key in the JKS keystore used for TLS


Path to the password file used with the file authentication type

Log Levels#

The optional log levels file, etc/, allows setting the minimum log level for named logger hierarchies. Every logger has a name, which is typically the fully qualified name of the class that uses the logger. Loggers have a hierarchy based on the dots in the name, like Java packages. For example, consider the following log levels file:


This sets the minimum level to INFO for both com.starburstdata.cache.db and com.starburstdata.cache.rules. The default minimum level is INFO, thus the above example does not actually change anything. There are four levels: DEBUG, INFO, WARN and ERROR.

Cache refresh rules for redirections#

A JSON file, rules.json, is used to define rules for which tables are cached by the service, the target catalog, and the schedule for refreshing them. The following is a sample showing the supported ways of configuring redirections.

  "defaultGracePeriod": "42m",
  "defaultMaxImportDuration": "1m",
  "defaultCacheCatalog": "default_cache_catalog",
  "defaultCacheSchema": "default_cache_schema",
  "defaultUnpartitionedImportConfig": {
    "usePreferredWritePartitioning": false,
    "preferredWritePartitioningMinNumberOfPartitions": 1,
    "writerCount": 128,
    "scaleWriters": false,
    "writerMinSize": "110MB"
  "defaultPartitionedImportConfig": {
    "usePreferredWritePartitioning": true,
    "preferredWritePartitioningMinNumberOfPartitions": 40,
    "writerCount": 256,
    "scaleWriters": false,
    "writerMinSize": "52MB"
  "rules": [
      "catalogName": "test_catalog",
      "schemaNameLike": "foo",
      "tableNameLike": "bar",
      "refreshInterval": "10m"
      "catalogName": "test_catalog",
      "schemaNameLike": "foo",
      "tableNameLike": "bar",
      "cronExpression": "* * * 2 *"
      "catalogName": "some_catalog",
      "schemaName": "xyz",
      "tableName": "ijk",
      "columns": [
      "partitionColumns": [
      "bucketColumns": [
      "bucketCount": 5,
      "sortColumns": [
      "refreshInterval": "123h",
      "gracePeriod": "80m",
      "maxImportDuration": "67h",
      "cacheCatalog": "table_catalog",
      "cacheSchema": "table_schema",
      "importConfig": {
        "usePreferredWritePartitioning": true,
        "preferredWritePartitioningMinNumberOfPartitions": 4,
        "writerCount": 32,
        "scaleWriters": false,
        "writerMinSize": "100MB"
      "incrementalImportConfig": {
        "usePreferredWritePartitioning": false,
        "preferredWritePartitioningMinNumberOfPartitions": 1,
        "writerCount": 4,
        "scaleWriters": false,
        "writerMinSize": "100MB"
      "catalogName": "mysql",
      "schemaName": "foo",
      "tableName": "events",
      "refreshInterval": "2m",
      "gracePeriod": "15m",
      "incrementalColumn": "event_id",
      "deletePredicate": "event_date < date_add('day', -31, CURRENT_DATE)"
      "catalogName": "postgresql",
      "schemaName": "foo",
      "tableName": "events",
      "refreshInterval": "2m",
      "gracePeriod": "15m",
      "incrementalColumn": "event_hour",
      "predicate": "event_hour < (SELECT date_add('hour', -1, latest_event_hour) FROM (SELECT max(event_hour) AS latest_event_hour FROM"

Each rule in the rules array defines what is cached, where the cached table is located and a schedule for automated refresh. The source catalog is defined within each rule using catalogName. A specific source table can be defined by explicitly providing schemaName and tableName. tableName can point at either table or view. One rule can match multiple source tables using schemaNameLike and tableNameLike patterns. A rule must either specify schemaName and tableName or schemaNameLike and tableNameLike.

For each rule, the frequency of refreshing cached table can be defined either by specifying a time duration in refreshInterval, or by a cron expression in cronExpression.

For bulk loaded cached tables, ttl is the time until the table expires. The service removes cached tables when they are no longer needed, such as when a newer redirection is present or ttl expired. The service waits for the grace-period before removing the cached table. This allows any running queries, which started just before the cached table is expired, to finish gracefully. The ttl is computed so that the service performs a complete source table import before the current cached table expires.

Incremental refreshes#

By default, each refresh of a cached table results in all the rows from the specified columns of the source table getting bulk loaded into the cached table. When the source table is large and requires frequent refreshes, the refresh can be configured to load data from the source table incrementally.

For incrementally refreshed cached tables, an incrementalColumn must be specified. This column is used by the service to apply a incrementalColumn > (SELECT max(incrementalColumn) FROM cachedTable) filter when loading data incrementally from the source table. This facilitates loading only newer data from the source table instead of the entire table in each refresh iteration.

Depending on the properties of the source table, incremental refresh can be setup in one of two ways shown in the example rules.json above:

  1. Use a strictly incrementing column from the source table to detect new rows. The service depends on the property of strictly increasing values to copy only the rows from source table where the value of incrementalColumn is greater than the values already present in the cached table. Modifications or deletions of existing rows are ignored.

  2. Use a monotonically incrementing column from the source table in combination with a configured predicate. Fact tables often contain time/date based columns which have the property of monotonically increasing, but not strictly increasing values. The predicate field can be used to specify a filter condition that delays loading the latest data which could still be modified (e.g. new rows added or existing rows changed) in the source table. This filter is applied in addition to the filter applied on incrementalColumn by the service to avoid loading the same data again.

The initial refresh for an incrementally cached table is a bulk load. Modification of columns, partitionColumns, bucketColumns, bucketCount, sortColumns, incrementalColumn, predicate or deletePredicate field results in the creation of a new cached table which is re-populated from the source table from scratch.

For incrementally cached tables, the cached table is not removed until the corresponding redirection rule is removed or modified in rules.json. If the cached table can not be successfully refreshed according to the specified refresh frequency, it is not used for table scan redirection so that queries on stale data are avoided.

The redirection rule for an incrementally cached table can also optionally specify a deletePredicate to clean up old data from the cached table. The deletePredicate is used to run a DELETE FROM cachedTable WHERE <deletePredicate> query at every cleanup-interval. The connector used to store the cached table must support the DELETE FROM statement configured through deletePredicate.

The grace period can be specified for all cached tables using defaultGracePeriod, and overridden within each rule using gracePeriod.

The target catalog for all cached tables can be defined using defaultCacheCatalog, each rule can override it using cacheCatalog.

The target schema for all cached tables can be defined using defaultCacheSchema, each rule can override it using cacheSchema.

Max import duration is the maximum allowed execution time for a query used to populate the cached table. It can be defined globally using defaultMaxImportDuration, or for each rule using maxImportDuration. It must be smaller than the refresh interval and greater than or equal to 1m. This field is compulsory when cronExpression is used to define a schedule for refresh of cached tables.

Each rule can optionally define partitioning for the target table by providing a comma separated list of column names in partitionColumns. Similarly, bucketing and sorting can also be defined using bucketColumns and sortColumns respectively. bucketCount must be provided when bucketColumns are provided. Table bucketing must be provided when sortColumns are provided.

The default import configuration for partitioned and non-partitioned cached tables can be specified in the defaultUnpartitionedImportConfig and defaultPartitionedImportConfig fields. Each rule can optionally specify an importConfig. It overrides the default import config when loading the cached tables defined by the rule. The rule can also include an incrementalImportConfig which applies for incremental imports.


The definition of the source table or view must remain compatible with it’s corresponding redirection rule definition for incrementally cached tables. Any table and columns changes need be followed with an update of the relevant names to the caching rules. This includes rules that do not specify columns, if any columns are added, removed or renamed in the source table. Such a change must be followed with expiring the cache with the expire_redirection command from the cache service CLI to create a new redirection with the updated table definition.

Cache type mapping rules#

You can configure the type mapping to use definitions in a JSON file, type-mapping.json, to define type casting rules used when the target catalog is created or updated. The following is a sample showing the supported ways of configuring redirections.

  "rules": {
    "tpch": {
      "integer": "long"
    "hive": {
      "timestamp(0)": "timestamp(3)",
      "timestamp(1)": "timestamp(3)",
      "timestamp(2)": "timestamp(3)"

Each mapping in the rules map refers to a different target catalog where the data needs to be cast to a different type. The Trino name of any type that is supported by the source catalog can be used as a key in the type map. Map values must be Trino types supported by the target catalog.

Type casting is applied to regular columns, partition columns, and the column used for incremental update.

Columns can only be cast based on their type. It is impossible to cast one column of a given type without casting all columns of that same type.


There are pre-configured type mappings CAST_TIMESTAMPS_TO_MILLISECONDS, CAST_TIMESTAMPS_TO_MICROSECONDS and CAST_TIMESTAMPS_TO_NANOSECONDS that can only be set using cache properties, not via the JSON type mapping. These mappings extend the precision of all timestamp-related types, they never truncate data, and ignore the target catalog name.


Some mappings, like integer -> varchar, can change the semantics of the max() function used for calculating the contents of an incremental update. For example "-1" > "7" because string lengths are compared first, so in incremental update the row with "-1" is added even if the table already contains data up to "7".


Using timestamp columns for Hive partitioning is strongly discouraged. Timestamp partitions are silently changed to timestamp(3) while being written by Hive, which can result in loss of precision for some columns. Additionally, it can lead to a huge amount of partitions, which negatively impacts performance.

Running the cache service#

The installation directory contains the launcher script in bin/launcher. It service can be started as a daemon by running the following:

bin/launcher start

Alternatively, it can be run in the foreground, with the logs and other output written to stdout/stderr. Both streams should be captured if using a supervision system like daemontools:

bin/launcher run

Run the launcher with --help to see the supported commands and command line options. In particular, the --verbose option is very useful for debugging the installation.

The launcher configures default values for the configuration directory etc, configuration files, the data directory var, and log files in the data directory. You can change these values to adjust your usage to any requirements, such as using a directory outside the installation directory, specific mount points or locations, and even using other file names.

After starting the cache service, you can find log files in the log directory inside the data directory var:

  • launcher.log: This log is created by the launcher and is connected to the stdout and stderr streams of the server. It contains a few log messages that occur while the server logging is being initialized, and any errors or diagnostics produced by the JVM.

  • server.log: This is the main log file used by the service. It typically contains the relevant information if the server fails during initialization. It is automatically rotated and compressed.

  • http-request.log: This is the HTTP request log which contains every HTTP request received by the server. It is automatically rotated and compressed.

JMX metrics#

Metrics about table import are reported in the JMX table jmx.current."com.starburstdata.cache:name=TableImportService".

Metrics about cached table cleanup are reported in the JMX table jmx.current."com.starburstdata.cache:name=CleanupService".

Metrics about redirections requests on the web service resources are reported in the JMX table jmx.current."com.starburstdata.cache.resource:name=RedirectionsResource".

Metrics about table import and expiration requests on the web service resource are reported in the JMX table jmx.current."com.starburstdata.cache.resource:name=CacheResource".