Iceberg connector#


Apache Iceberg is an open table format for huge analytic datasets. The Iceberg connector allows querying data stored in files written in Iceberg format, as defined in the Iceberg Table Spec. It supports Apache Iceberg table spec version 1.

The Iceberg table state is maintained in metadata files. All changes to table state create a new metadata file and replace the old metadata with an atomic swap. The table metadata file tracks the table schema, partitioning config, custom properties, and snapshots of the table contents.

Iceberg data files can be stored in either Parquet or ORC format, as determined by the format property in the table definition. The table format defaults to ORC.

Iceberg is designed to improve on the known scalability limitations of Hive, which stores table metadata in a metastore that is backed by a relational database such as MySQL. It tracks partition locations in the metastore, but not individual data files. Trino queries using the Hive connector must first call the metastore to get partition locations, then call the underlying filesystem to list all data files inside each partition, and then read metadata from each data file.

Since Iceberg stores the paths to data files in the metadata files, it only consults the underlying file system for files that must be read.


To use Iceberg, you need:

  • Network access from the Trino coordinator and workers to the distributed object storage.

  • Access to a Hive metastore service (HMS).

  • Network access from the Trino coordinator to the HMS. Hive metastore access with the Thrift protocol defaults to using port 9083.


Iceberg supports the same metastore configuration properties as the Hive connector. At a minimum, hive.metastore.uri must be configured:
Iceberg configuration properties#

Property name




Define the data storage file format for Iceberg tables. Possible values are


  • ORC



The compression codec to be used when writing files. Possible values are

  • NONE


  • LZ4

  • ZSTD

  • GZIP



Maximum number of partitions handled per writer.


SQL support#

This connector provides read access and write access to data and metadata in Iceberg. In addition to the globally available and read operation statements, the connector supports the following features:

Partitioned tables#

Iceberg supports partitioning by specifying transforms over the table columns. A partition is created for each unique tuple value produced by the transforms. Identity transforms are simply the column name. Other transforms are:




A partition is created for each year. The partition value is the integer difference in years between ts and January 1 1970.


A partition is created for each month of each year. The partition value is the integer difference in months between ts and January 1 1970.


A partition is created for each day of each year. The partition value is the integer difference in days between ts and January 1 1970.


A partition is created hour of each day. The partition value is a timestamp with the minutes and seconds set to zero.

bucket(x, nbuckets)

The data is hashed into the specified number of buckets. The partition value is an integer hash of x, with a value between 0 and nbuckets - 1 inclusive.

truncate(s, nchars)

The partition value is the first nchars characters of s.

In this example, the table is partitioned by the month of order_date, a hash of account_number (with 10 buckets), and country:

CREATE TABLE iceberg.testdb.customer_orders (
    order_id BIGINT,
    order_date DATE,
    account_number BIGINT,
    customer VARCHAR,
    country VARCHAR)
WITH (partitioning = ARRAY['month(order_date)', 'bucket(account_number, 10)', 'country'])

Deletion by partition#

For partitioned tables, the Iceberg connector supports the deletion of entire partitions if the WHERE clause specifies filters only on the identity-transformed partitioning columns, that can match entire partitions. Given the table definition above, this SQL will delete all partitions for which country is US:

DELETE FROM iceberg.testdb.customer_orders
WHERE country = 'US'

Currently, the Iceberg connector only supports deletion by partition. This SQL below will fail because the WHERE clause selects only some of the rows in the partition:

DELETE FROM iceberg.testdb.customer_orders
WHERE country = 'US' AND customer = 'Freds Foods'

Rolling back to a previous snapshot#

Iceberg supports a “snapshot” model of data, where table snapshots are identified by an snapshot IDs.

The connector provides a system snapshots table for each Iceberg table. Snapshots are identified by BIGINT snapshot IDs. You can find the latest snapshot ID for table customer_orders by running the following command:

SELECT snapshot_id FROM iceberg.testdb."customer_orders$snapshots" ORDER BY committed_at DESC LIMIT 1

A SQL procedure system.rollback_to_snapshot allows the caller to roll back the state of the table to a previous snapshot id:

CALL iceberg.system.rollback_to_snapshot('testdb', 'customer_orders', 8954597067493422955)

Schema evolution#

Iceberg and the Iceberg connector support schema evolution, with safe column add, drop, reorder and rename operations, including in nested structures. Table partitioning can also be changed and the connector can still query data created before the partitioning change.

Migrating existing tables#

The connector can read from or write to Hive tables that have been migrated to Iceberg. There is no Trino support for migrating Hive tables to Iceberg, so you need to either use the Iceberg API or Apache Spark.

System tables and columns#

The connector supports queries of the table partitions. Given a table customer_orders, SELECT * FROM iceberg.testdb."customer_orders$partitions" shows the table partitions, including the minimum and maximum values for the partition columns.

Iceberg table properties#

Property Name



Optionally specifies the format of table data files; either PARQUET or ORC. Defaults to ORC.


Optionally specifies table partitioning. If a table is partitioned by columns c1 and c2, the partitioning property would be partitioning = ARRAY['c1', 'c2']


Optionally specifies the file system location URI for the table.

The table definition below specifies format Parquet, partitioning by columns c1 and c2, and a file system location of /var/my_tables/test_table:

CREATE TABLE test_table (
    c1 integer,
    c2 date,
    c3 double)
    format = 'PARQUET',
    partitioning = ARRAY['c1', 'c2'],
    location = '/var/my_tables/test_table')

Materialized views#

The Iceberg connector supports Materialized views management. In the underlying system each materialized view consists of a view definition and an Iceberg storage table. The storage table name is stored as a materialized view property. The data is stored in that storage table.

You can use the Iceberg table properties to control the created storage table and therefore the layout and performance. For example, you can use the following clause with CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW to use the ORC format for the data files and partition the storage per day using the column _date:

WITH ( format = 'ORC', partitioning = ARRAY['event_date'] )

Updating the data in the materialized view with REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW deletes the data from the storage table, and inserts new data that is the result of executing the materialized view query.


There is a small time window between the commit of the delete and insert, when the materialized view is empty. If the commit operation for the insert fails, the materialized view remains empty.

Dropping a materialized view with REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW removes the definition and the storage table.